Xunzi, a later Confucian, if you find yourself hearkening back again to the brand new teachings off Confucius, created the earliest really atheistic program out-of thought for the Confucianism. He said one eden are little more than an effective designation to own new absolute procedure off cosmos, which an effective are compensated and you will worst punished. In this conceptualization of your world, Xunzi declined the existence of supernatural beings and you may spirits, and said one spiritual serves haven’t any feeling, a perspective a little congruent which have atheism. Neo-Confucian blog site, such as those of Zhu Xi, are considerably vaguer about whether its conception of your own Higher Greatest is like an individual goddess or not, and if or not the metaphysical planets are structured towards unpassioned forces (including issue push (qi) and you may concept (li) instead of to your god-like organizations.
The Dao, literally translated since the “way,” stands for getting Daoists this new normative ontological and you may moral important for which the complete market was created. Based on Laozi, writer of the newest Dao De Jing, things are emanations of one’s Dao, where they originate and finally come back. Brand new Dao, however, cannot be described within the terms and conditions and can not be fully fully understood, though it can be observed ever so vaguely on processes regarding characteristics.